Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 35100, Bornova-Izmir, Turkey.
Author for correspondence: Hasan Yıldırım, e-mail email@example.com
A Czech translation of this article was published in the journal Trifid 2012/3+4.
Dear authors, thank you very much for providing Darwiniana & its journal Trifid with your article and amazing shots of Pinguicula species.
The short descriptions, distribution map, detailed photographs and a descriptive key of Pinguicula species of Turkey are given.
Key words: Pinguicula habilii, Pinguicula crystallina, Pinguicula balcanica subsp. pontica, Turkey
The genus Pinguicula is one of the most widespread genera of carnivorous plants genera (Casper 1966, Givnish 1989). It consists of about 100 species (Degtjareva et al. 2006, Beck et al. 2008, Rodondi et al. 2010) which are present on subarctic, tropical, Mediterranean and temperate areas of Eurasia, North America, Central America (from Mexico to the Caribbean Islands), South America (Andes from Colombia to Ecuador, Chile and Patagonia) and northernmost Africa (Zamora et al. 1996, Steiger 1998, Legendre 2000, Degtjareva et al. 2004, 2006, Fischer et al. 2004, Cieslak et al. 2005).
Two important distribution centers of the genus Pinguicula are Central America (Mexico) and the Caribbean, and the Mediterranean region (Steiger 1998, Cieslak et al. 2005). Although it is known that there are about 20 Pinguicula species in the Mediterranean Basin, they are rare and restricted to certain sites in Mediterranean ecosystems (Casper 1962, Blanca 2001). In these regions, where plant growth is very limited due to water unavailability, appropriate habitats for Pinguicula are scattered, and isolated in wet areas surrounded by larger dry habitats (Blanca 2001). This caused the formation of small, isolated Pinguicula populations (Zamora et al. 1996).
Turkey is one of the richest areas in the world in terms of amazing plant diversity. The flora of Turkey consist of about 12000 vascular and fern species of which over 3,000 are endemic and also still a great number of new species are being described year by year. The rate of plant endemism of Turkey is relatively high when compared with other European countries. The exceptional diversity encountered in Turkey's plants is a result of climatic and geomorphologic diversities and the most importantly, Turkey is a country at the junction of three flora region which are Euro-Siberian, Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian. The other factor of plant diversity of Turkey is the ice ages ranging from 1 million 800 000 to ten thousand years ago (Avci, 2005, Eken et al. 2006, Özhatay 2006).
The carnivorous plants in Turkey are represented with three genera which are Utricularia, Drosera and Pinguicula and eight species up to date. The first two genera comprise Utricularia minor L., Utricularia australis R. Br., Utricularia vulgaris L., Drosera intermedia Hayne, Drosera longifolia L. and Drosera rotundifolia L. (Cullen 1967, Mill 1978, Byfield 2000). Pinguicula in Turkey was previously revised by Mill (1978), who reported only two species: P. crystallina and P. balcanica Casper subsp. pontica Casper. After discovering of Pinguicula habilii (Yıldırım et al. 2012), the number of Pinguicula species became three and total number of carnivorous plant species in Turkey increased to nine.
1. Generative and vegetative rosettes leaves similar……………………1. P. crystallina
1. Generative and vegetative rosettes leaves different.
Perennial herbs with slender roots, overwintering as a rosette. Generative and vegetative rosettes leaves similar, leaves broadly elliptic to oblong, lamina 15–35 × 10–25 mm, margin slightly involute to flat apex obtuse or sometimes slightly emarginate; upper surface densely covered with mucilaginous sessile and stalked glands. Scapes 1–4, 30–100 mm long, erect, glandular pubescent or glabrous at base, 1-flowered. Calyx distinctly bilabiate, upper surfaces densely covered with stipitate glands. Corolla pale lavander or whitish, distinctly bilabiate, 8–15 mm, tube whitish-yellow, often with dark longitudinal veins, lips subequal, upper slightly shorter; hairs of throat golden yellow. Spur infundibulariform to cylindrical, curved downwards, 3–10 mm, usually upturned. Capsule globose, included in calyx.
Seed 0.8–1 mm long, oblong to elliptical, dark brown; seed coat surface reticulate; longitudinally anticlinal walls of exotesta cells with thickenings in the form of vertical bolsters. Pollen shapes prolate, radially symmetric, ornamentation rugulate–microreticulate.
Flowering time: May to August sometimes to October.
In spray zone of permanent springs, rivulets and waterfalls, rocky mossy places in Pinus brutia and P. nigra belts, on serpentine and limestone, 650–1700 m.
It occurs very local at Kütahya, Muğla, Denizli, Burdur, Adana and Hatay provinces (Figure 7).
Perennial herbs with slender roots, heterophyllous, overwintering as a bud (hibernaculum). Generative and vegetative rosettes leaves different. Leaves of generative rosette elliptic, 10–30 × 10–15 mm, upper surface densely covered with mucilaginous sessile and stalked glands; vegetative rosette leaves narrowly oblong, 10–45 × 3–10 mm. Scapes 1–5, 40–100 cm long, erect, glandular pubescent, 1-flowered. Calyx bilabiate, upper lip deeply divided, oval, triangular or lanceolate, lobes not divergent. Corolla deep blue to lilac, with whitish throat, 10-20 mm, distinctly bilabiate, lower lip twice length of upper. Spur subulate, 3–5 mm, straight or downward curved, not forming angle with corolla tube. Capsule ovoid, exceeding calyx.
Seed 0.7–0.9 mm long, oblong, dark brown; seed coat surface reticulate the anticlinal walls are thin throughout their height.
Flowering time: May to August.
Wet alpine turf, stream banks, acidic and nutrient poor environments.
It occurs at Rize, Bursa, Kastamonu, Artvin, Erzurum, Van, Mersin provinces (Figure 7).
Rosetted perennial herb, heterophyllous, scapose. Generative and vegetative rosettes different in shape; generative (summer) rosettes from 140 to 200 mm in diameter; vegetative (winter) rosettes from 40 to 60 mm in diameter. Generative rosette leaves 3–6, 70–110 × 6–11 mm, linear to very narrowly lanceolate; margin entire, recurved or flat; apex obtuse to acute, entire; upper surface densely covered with mucilaginous sessile and stalked glands. Vegetative rosette leaves 4–8, 18–35 × 11–16 mm, oblong-elliptic to slightly oblanceolate; margin entire, sometimes slightly curved; apex obtuse or sometimes slightly emarginate, upper surface densely covered with mucilaginous sessile and stalked glands. Scapes 1–4(–6), erect, 110–170 mm tall, terete, 1-flowered, densely covered with stalked glands just beneath flower. Flowers 24–28 mm long (spur included). Calyx distinctly bilabiate, upper surfaces densely covered with stipitate glands; upper lip divided nearly to base into 3 lobes, elliptic to slightly oblanceolate. Corolla distinctly bilabiate, blue violet to pinkish violate with whitish central zone, near to corolla. Spur infundibulariform to cylindrical, curved downwards, 6–11 × 0.6–0.8 mm, yellowish. Capsule globose, c. 3 mm in diameter, glabrous at mature period.
Seed 0.8–1.1 × 0.3–0.35 mm, oblong to elliptical, dark brown; seed coat surface reticulate; longitudinally anticlinal walls of exotesta cells with thickenings in the form of „tubercles“; lateral anticlinal walls exotesta cells without any thickening, very thin, shallow. Pollen shapes prolate; ornamentation is rugulate–microreticulate on mesocolpium and perforated on polar axis.
Flowering time: May to July.
It grows only on the serpentine rock cliffs along a small stream at elevations between 100 and 200 m.
Pinguicula habilii is located in Marmaris, a district of the province of Muğla. It is quite rare endemic to Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey (Figure 7).
Three Pinguicula species grow in Turkey. One of them shows homophyllous growth-type (P. crystallina) and the others show heterophyllous growth-type (P. balcanica and P. habilii).
Pinguicula habilii shows a tropical heterophyllous growth. It has two rosette types a summer rosette (generative) form characterized with longer and smaller leaves and a winter rosette (vegetative) form characterized with shorter and larger leaves (Yıldırım et al. 2012). P. habilii placed in the section Cardiophyllum of Pinguicula subgenus Isoloba with P. crystallina and P. hirtiflora. However, P. crystallina and P. hirtiflora are characterized by its homophyllous tropical growth-type. (Casper 1966, Peruzzi et al. 2004, Peruzzi 2006, Yıldırım et al. 2012). P. habilii is local endemic species for Turkey. It knows only a locality along the stream near Marmaris, on serpentine rocks, 100–200 m in Muğla province. It is an East Mediterranean element.
Pinguicula crystallina shows a tropical homophyllous growth. Summer (generative) and winter rosette (vegetative) leaves are similar. P. crystallina distribute in Western and Southern Turkey. There are many small population of P. crystallina in Southwestern Anatolia (especially in Muğla province). Also, there are some small populations in South Anatolia (Adana and Hatay provinces). It is an East Mediterranean element.
Pinguicula balcanica shows a temperate heterophyllous growth. It has two rosette types (generative and vegetative rosette) with different shapes leaves and a winter buds (hibernaculum). P. balcanica subsp. balcanica is confined to the Balkans only. However, P. balcanica subsp. pontica distrubute to north to northeast Anatolia, Abkhazya and Transcaucasia (Mill 1978). P. balcanica subsp. balcanica differs in having short, broadly ovate lobes and upper lip of calyx, and straight, obtuse, cylindrical spur of corolla from the P. balcanica subsp. pontica (Mill 1978). Although P. balcanica subsp. pontica is a Euxine element, it has some small population at Taurus Mountain chain in Mersin province (South Anatolia). More probably it has many undiscovered population on „Anatolian Diagonal“ (whole Taurus Mountain chain).
We would especially thank Metin Armağan for shared with us many photos of Pinguicula balcanica subsp. pontica at Van province.